Software Development Life Cycle – Introduction Model Stages and Advantages

What is the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

SDLC or Software Development Life Cycle is essentially the process or phases of a model or methodology, which software engineers and developers follow in developing an application or software. In simpler words, it is a process consisting of a series of planned activities for planning, creating, testing, deploying and maintenance of software.

SDLC is often referred as software development process, as it consists of all tasks, which needs to be followed while developing an application or software. SDLC is followed within IT development companies to develop, alter, replace or enhance the performance of the software. ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for SDLC, which ensures high quality of the newly developed software. It also helps IT development companies in improving the overall quality of their software development services.

What are the major SDLC Models, followed in the IT Industry?

There are various SDLS models, which are currently followed in the IT Industry. Often referred as ‘Software Development Process Models’, all the process models follow unique software development steps, ensuring 100% success of the development projects.

The major software development life cycle models are-

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • Big Bang Model

Other related models are Rapid Application Development (RAD), Prototype and Agile Models.

The advantages of choosing an appropriate Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)-

  • Increased Product Quality
  • Increased Development Speed
  • Improved Client Relations
  • Improved Tracking & Control
  • Decreased Project Risks
  • Decreased Project Management Overhead

What are the different stages of SDLC?

Stage 1:

Planning and Requirement Analysis

This is the most important stage in the SDLC. This stage needs input from the customers, sales team, industry experts, a marketing team and their survey reports. After which, senior business managers and developers of a software development company plan the project approach and the development model.

Stage 2:

Designing

After the analysis of requirements and finalizing the Design Document Specification (DDS), the product architecture is designed by an expert team. This architecture has to stand upon various parameters such as budget, time, product robustness, risk assessment and design modularity, after which it is considered for the development.

Stage 3:

Development

The actual development of the software or application starts at this stage. The team of engineers and developers follow the coding guidelines set by the organization and use different tools for code generation. The programming code is generated as per the details documented in the DDS. The developers use different high level programming languages as per the requirement.

Stage 4:

Testing

In this stage, the final product goes through a pre-defined road of testing, where defects or bugs in the product are reported and then fixed by the developers. This stage ensures that the final product meets the highest quality standards, which are accepted worldwide.

Stage 5:

Deployment

At this stage, the final product is deployed at the client base. At times, the software is integrated with the client’s current application and database. All the deployment and integration works are done under the guidance of expert software engineers and developers.

Stage 6:

Maintenance & Support

Most of the reputed IT development companies also provide complete maintenance and technical support, post deployment of the final product at client base.

Overseas Auto Transportation Can Be Made Easy

Moving overseas is certainly quite a bit more complicated than moving to another city. Unless you are going to sell your car and buy a new one at your destination, you are going to have to employ a car shipping service. Many people are unsure if it is worthwhile to have their car transported when staying overseas for a while.

Understandably, it looks like a complicated process. However, with the help of a full service auto transport service, the process is fairly simple and stress-free. If you've never shipped a car overseas before, this article will provide an overview about your car's upcoming journey.

Types of Overseas Transports

The first leg of your car's journey is the trip from your home to the port. If the port is close you can drive it yourself. If it is farther away, you will probably have the auto transport company that part of the journey as well.

Once your car arrives at the dock it will be shipped one of three ways: RORO (Roll On Roll Off), in a 20-foot container, or in a 40-foot container.

Roll On Roll Off is commonly used for short trips. For example, it is the most common way that cars are shipped to Hawaii or Puerto Rico. The ship is basically a large car ferry. Your vehicle is driven aboard and parked along with many other vehicles. Upon arrival, it is driven out onto the dock. RORO service is usually cheaper than container shipping. However it is also less safe and your vehicle is more likely to be damaged. This shipping method covers the car itself. There is no provision for shipping any personal belongings.

A 20-foot shipping container is a safer method of auto transport. The car is loaded into a standard shipping container, so so it does not move during the trip, then the container is brought aboard the ship. Most of the time these smaller containers will fit only the car itself. If there is room in the container some shippers will allow you to ship personal belongings as well.

The best solution for shipping both your vehicle and household items is a 40-foot shipping container. The other items are loaded in first then a wooden bulkhead is placed in the container to separate these items from the car. The vehicle is driven into the container and secured as above. This shipping method is safer for both the car and your other belongings but is likely to be the most expensive shipping method.

Other Details of Overseas Auto Transport

Overseas transport is going to be more expensive than typical ground car shipping. Shipping will incur port fees at the destination. If shipping to another country, you will have to pay that country's tariffs. Finally, your insurance will almost certainly not cover your vehicle during the trip. You will need to purchase maritime insurance which generally costs 1% -3% of the price of the vehicle.

International shipping has stricter documentation requirements. You will need the original title to the vehicle and may need other documentation depending on the destination. An experienced international auto transport company will be able to help you with the details so that you can get everything prepared before your move.

Cheap Nintendo Wii Accessories

One can maximize the use of Nintendo Wii with a few more must-have accessories. These Nintendo Wii accessories add to the fun and experience of Wii gaming. They can even be perfect gifts for someone who already owns Nintendo Wii.

There are many sites listing the must have Nintendo Wii accessories. There are many online forums as well, that discuss them in detail. You will find many sharing their incredible experience while some may point out the faults. Do read them for knowledge as they also give you an idea as to what should be expected. Most of these sites have their own set of top accessories for Nintendo Wii, though a few common and the popular ones are the extra controllers, rechargeable batteries, game cube controllers, game cube memory cards, Wii points, SD card and the component video adapter .

The extra controller facilitates one to play head to head Wii sports games such as tennis or boxing. The extra controllers are the Wiimote and the Nunchuck. The combined cost of both of them would be around sixty dollars. The Wii supports four, but even one extra controller is just as much fun. Rechargeable batteries are a must for the avid gamers. If Nunchuck is left attached to the consoles, the battery drains out at a lightening speed. The rechargeable battery is one of the practical and cost saving Nintendo Wii accessories. Other attractive Wii games and accessories include the Nintendo wave bird. It is priced at only thirty five dollars and you can go wireless too. Game cube controller is also a well-liked accessory that works with the "virtual console". One does not need to buy the classic controller in this case. This is also nominally priced at twenty five dollars only.

There are some more bought after cheap Nintendo Wii accessories as well. A dollar twenty five game cube memory card will help you to save your games. If your Wii's memory is almost full with the virtual games do not worry. Just buy a SD card and expand your memory. These moderately spacious cards are available for thirty dollars.

All of the above accessories for the Nintendo Wii are readily available on console's online store. One may even get them on certain online retail outlets or in a console store near you.

The future-game freaks who love the Wii by now exactly know where to invest for added fun and excitement. The young, I am sure, will use the pocket money to buy these accessories while the adults can save for the astonishing Nintendo Wii accessories.

Health Begins With Water

Health begins with water. Since the body is made mostly of water (about 70%), all body functions are dependent on water. I guess you could call water a universal solvent. Most nutrients with the exception of fats are dissolved in water, transported in the water-based blood system and used by water-filled cells. And, because the cells are filled with water, the water lubricates, them, like cartilage and muscle cells. It also keeps cell walls pliable and receptive to nutrient inflow and waste outflow.

These facts point to the crucial nature of proper hydration for a healthy body. It is even more important as we get older as will be explained soon. Every organ in the body depends on water to function properly and efficiently. When we are not hydrated properly, or we are dehydrated, even a little bit, our bodily functions become labored. Over time, our health can become challenging. It is very subtle at first, then symptoms begin to appear.

The US National Research Council has guidelines that suggest that we require one milliliter of water for every calorie we consume. That translates to approximately one half of your body weight in ounces of water consumed daily. Some scientists and medical community advisers claim that amount is too conservative, that we should drink more. For someone who is obese, very overweight or suffering from a chronic disease, they should be drinking 1 quart (32 ounces)of water for every 30 pounds of body weight.

If we look at body functions, there are four obvious ways that the body loses water; defecation, perspiration, respiration and urination. In addition, the body’s digestive process uses a huge amount of water which can further dehydrate the body if there are not sufficient water reserves. Efficient digestion is also aided by drinking sufficient water between meals to flush the digestive tract and provide enough water for bodily functions.

Obviously, the quality of the water that we use to remain healthy or regain our health is very important. For most people it means the water should be clean and safe to drink. What most people don’t know is that in order to be healthy throughout life the body needs to be as near to a neutral pH as possible and the blood absolutely needs to be between 7.35pH and 7.45pH or we die. That means the fluids in our body need to be reinforced with alkaline, ionized water.

Most of the foods that people eat form acidic ash and waste in the body, so to neutralize it we need to drink alkaline ionized water.

Another component of health that is crucial to us is negative ions. Alkaline, ionized water is full of negatively charged particles which our bodies crave. Without negative ions our bodies decline and age. Eventually our health is eroded and our organs slowly lose their efficient function.

It seems that the “struggle” for health is our attempt to rid our bodies of the positive ions we acquire from our “unnatural” diet and to get enough negative ions into our bodies. Traditionally our Paleolithic ancestors used to eat a predominantly raw food diet supplemented with river and creek water that babbled over the rocks and down waterfalls, thus becoming negatively charged and highly oxygenated.

Sadly our diets have reduced to pulling up to the local drive-through and drinking out of cans and bottles. These habits have created a society of overweight acidic bodies full of positive ions and ill health.

Fortunately the process is simple to reverse. Even if your health is OK now, you should be motivated to remain healthy throughout your life. A few changes to your lifestyle will give you valuable “life insurance.”

In the early 20th Century, the Russians discovered that negative ions were very good for human health. They postulated that if they could create negative ions in water that it would create an easier avenue to health. Through experimentation, the first water ionizers were created. The challenge even today is the bonds that water molecules form are weak. Water ionizers break up the large clusters of water into smaller clusters but they do not hold the ionic microcluster structure permanently once they are formed. So the best way to drink alkaline, ionized water is fresh from a machine that creates it. At best, it can be put into a glass bottle and it will hold its charge and microclustering for two days provided the water is filled right to the rim of the bottle. After that, the weak bonds separate and reform into larger cluster molecules and they lose their negative charge.

Even today, Dr. Emoto has shown that water has memory and can be “programmed.” The concept of alkaline, ionized water, is more and more becoming a household word as people realize the benefits of drinking this special water.

It is estimated that 75% or more of North Americans are dehydrated enough that it affects their health in a negative way. And, with that dehydration there is an acidic inflamed body. It may be “silent” inflammation now, but it will eventually rise up into the radar range and become pain or symptoms. It doesn’t seem to matter that people drink lots of water, it matters more what kind of water they drink.

In a University of Washington study, it was found that many people interpret their thirst as hunger. By giving those in the study a glass of water when they felt hungry, it stopped the hunger pangs in 98% of the people surveyed.

For the average North American, there are one or more toxic chemicals stored in their fatty tissue from drinking treated tap water. That is not even including toxins from the foods we eat, what we put on our skin and hair, what we clean our houses with or environmental pollutants. In the US, 53 million people drink water from municipal water supplies containing potentially dangerous levels of chlorine and fluoride derivatives and by-products, lead, fecal bacteria, fertilizers, pesticides, jet fuels, pharmaceuticals and other impurities associated with cancers and various sorts of metabolic dysfunction and diseases.

I remember a study a few years back where they took hair, blood and urine samples from a famous artist who ate organic, used “natural” products, drank the best water he could find, uses as few chemicals as possible in his art and he wore natural fibers. There were 48 toxic chemicals found in his body. He was really conscious about being a “back to earth” guy and quite shocked at the toxic levels in his body. Alarming, don’t you think?

Because most of us are dehydrated by various degrees, our daytime level of fatigue could be directly related to dehydration and our diets. The typical slump seems to be between 3 and 4 pm, where we reach for that sugary snack or the coffee. If we only knew that by drinking two glasses of alkaline, ionized water after lunch, we could feel much better. Water is so important that only a 2% drop in your body’s natural water level can bring on mental confusion, short term memory loss, inability to focus and sluggishness in doing simple math calculations, sequenced procedures and interpretive skills.

Also, with regards to your health, recent research shows that 8-10 glasses of alkaline, ionized water per day may significantly reduce pain levels, even in backs and joints for up to 80% of sufferers. Research is also showing that if the average person drank at least 5-16 oz glasses of alkaline, ionized water daily, that is plain alkaline, ionized water, not mixed with anything, their risk of getting breast cancer can be decreased by 79%, colon cancer by 45% and bladder cancer by 50%.

How does it work? The properties of alkaline, ionized water are unique. Drinking this water provides a quick supply of available oxygen – making the water an “antioxidant.” In other word, the water has an extra electron attached making hydroxyl ions which are negatively charged. These hydroxyl ions in the ionized water seek out and neutralize free radicals. This is very important, since free radicals are what damage our cells and bring about disease and premature aging. When the hydroxyl ions, as an antioxidant have neutralized the free radicals, the result is a body that is energized, vitalized and oxygen rich. Alkaline, ionized water helps balance the body’s pH by reducing excess cellular and body acidity, helping the body to dissolve and excrete acidic waster products more easily.

The electrolysis process that produces the alkaline, ionized water, not only produces an excess of electrons, it also reduces the cluster size of the molecules from 13 to 14 (which is regular tap water) to 5 to 7. This can happen because of the weak bonds that the water has with molecules around itself. These smaller clusters have a lower molecular weight, making the alkaline, ionized water more easily absorbed by the body. The smaller cluster size is also better able to deliver nutrient to all the cells, tissues and organs and accelerates metabolism as more and more acidic waste is eliminated from the body. So, take your vitamin and mineral supplements with alkaline, ionized water for greater absorption. Conversely, take your medications with neutral water. Normally only about 30% of your medication is absorbed by the body because of our acidic and plugged up condition. Alkaline, ionized water will increase the absorption of your medication and you may get too much.

A normal average North American diet will produce high levels of acidic waste in the body from 97% of what is eaten. We simply don’t eat enough alkaline foods, fruits and vegetables. These acids, if they are not neutralized, can cause inflammation and free radicals. They can kill healthy cells by stealing oxygen and damage them by stealing electrons. Alkaline water and food will not only dissolve these harmful acids, but they will help remove them from the body by allowing them to pass safely through the kidneys and bowels and not be stored in our joints, organs, blood vessels and fat cells.

The qualities of high alkalinity, more oxygen and lower molecular weight act as a powerful cellular detoxifier, helping the body maintain or restore its health and should be part of everyone’s daily regimen. Research in Japan since the 1950′s indicate that most chronic conditions are a result of increased waste, acidity and the resulting impaired body function and immune system.

If you are looking to feel younger, more flexible, vital and alive, or even stay that way, then the answer is clear. Try alkaline, ionized water!